Articles by Bryan S. Bush
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ARTICLES ◣ Colonel William (Willie) Campbell Preston Breckinridge - 9th Kentucky Cavalry, C.S.
Butcher Burbridge: Union General Stephen Burbridge and His Reign of Terror Over
Kentucky. One of the most vilified and hated men during the Civil War in Kentucky had to be
Kentucky born Union (brevet) Major General Stephen Gano Burbridge, but why have Kentuckian historians
continued to cast him negatively? This new detailed biography of the infamous "Butcher of Kentucky"
answers this question, and also leads the reader from Burbridge's rise as a distinguished military
commander, to his controversial, brutal rule over Kentucky, and ultimately to his downfall.
read more about it
At the age of twenty-seven, William (Willie) Campbell Preston Breckinridge enlisted in the 9th Kentucky
Cavalry Battalion, and in early 1862 promoted to Major. During September and October of 1862, while the
state was under the occupation of Confederate General Braxton Bragg’s Army of Tennessee and Edmund Kirby
Smith’s Army of East Tennessee, Confederate recruiters signed up men from Central and Northern Kentucky to
form the 9th Kentucky battalion, which consisted of five companies. After the Battle of Perryville in
October of 1862, Bragg and Smith pulled out of Kentucky, and Willie Breckinridge’s battalion fell back into
Tennessee along with the rest of the Confederate army. The Confederate command placed the 9th Kentucky
battalion under the command of Confederate General John Hunt Morgan.
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Col. W. C. P. Breckinridge
Willie Breckinridge came from one of the most prominent political families in Kentucky. W. C. P.
Breckinridge’s grandfather had served as United States Senator, was the first cabinet level minister from
west of the Appalachians, and introduced the Kentucky Resolutions of 1798. Willie Breckinridge’s father
Robert had left a political career for the ministry and reached his church’s highest position when he became
Moderator of the Presbyterian General Assembly. He also helped to found the Unconditional Unionists
Party. An uncle of Willie Brecknridge’s had been a Kentucky Secretary of State, and his cousin John C.
Breckinridge held the Offices of Representative, Vice President, Senator, and during the Civil War,
Confederate General of the famous Orphans Brigade, and Confederate Secretary of War, all before the age of
forty five. Another cousin, Clifton Rodes Breckinridge of Arkansas, would serve in Congress.
On December 15, 1862, in Alexandria, Tennessee, the 9th Kentucky Battalion was combined with five companies
under Lieutenant Colonel Robert Stoner and the two battalions formed the 9th Kentucky Cavalry
Regiment. Morgan promoted Willie Breckenridge to Colonel and Stoner became his Lieutenant Colonel. The
9th Kentucky Regiment was assigned to the Second Brigade of General John Hunt Morgan’s Division of
Cavalry. On December 22, 1862, the 9th Kentucky along with the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry under Basil Duke; the
7th Kentucky under Colonel Gano; the 8th Kentucky under Colonel Cluke; and the 11th Kentucky under
Colonel Chenault, along with a howitzer battery under Captain Arnet, left Alexandria, Tennessee. Morgan’s
division totaled to 3,100 men and seven pieces of artillery. Morgan divided the division into two brigades:
the first commanded by Colonel Duke and the second under the command of Colonel Breckinridge. On December
22, 1862, Morgan crossed the Cumberland River, and encamped three miles on the other side of the river at
On the December 23, Morgan made an early start and reached Centreville that evening. He had traveled about
thirty miles. On December 24, the division marched to within six miles of Glasgow. Morgan set up his main
camp some six miles from the town, and sent two companies to take possession of Glasgow. As they entered
town, they encountered the advance guard of a battalion of the Second Michigan Cavalry. Darkness prevented
either side from seeing each other at first, but then a skirmish broke out and a private of Breckinridge’s
regiment and Captain W. E. Jones, Co. A, 9th Kentucky, were mortally wounded. Lt. Samuel Peyton, of Duke’s
regiment was seriously wounded and some six or seven of Morgan’s men taken prisoner. Morgan’s squadron fell
back, as the Yankees passed through the town and took the road to Munfordville, Kentucky. Several of the
Yankees were killed and wounded and twenty-two prisoners, including a captain, were captured and paroled.
On December 25, Morgan passed through Glasgow and took the Bear Wallow turnpike in the direction of
Munfordville. About ten miles from Green River Morgan’s scouts reported that a battalion of cavalry was
drawn up in line, awaiting their approach. Morgan quickly moved forward two companies and a section of
artillery to meet them, and made ready for a long engagement.
The Yankees did not wait to receive the charge of the force Morgan had sent forward, but fired a few rounds,
took to flight and left the road clear. Morgan proceeded with his force to the Green River, and succeeded
in crossing the river with considerable difficulty, since the banks were muddy and steep. Morgan reached
Hammondsville with his command at midnight and ordered Colonel Breckinridge to send two companies in the
direction of Woodsonville with instructions to drive in the Yankee pickets, and he dispatched two companies
of Col. Duke’s command with similar instructions, in the direction of Munfordville. Morgan’s plan was to
make the Yankees think that he intended to attack the fortifications at Green River, and by so threatening
the Yankees, to divert their attention from the combined attack which he intended to make the next day on
the stockades at Bacon Creek and Nolin.
On December 26, Morgan sent Duke’s and Gano’s Seventh Kentucky Cavalry regiments and a section of artillery
from Palmer’s battery, under the command of Lt. Col. John Hutcheson of the Second Kentucky Cavalry to attack
the stockade at Bacon Creek, while he moved on with the main body of men to Upton. A heavy rain had begun
to fall during the night, turning the road into a quagmire, and making the road very difficult for the
artillery and wagon trains to move. At 11 o’clock Colonel Hutcheson’s cannon opened up. Upon arriving at
Upton, Morgan cut the telegraph wires and his operator Lighting Ellsworth was soon in communication with
Louisville, Cincinnati, and other points along the railway lines. A message was received that a train
loaded with ammunition, small arms, and two pieces of rifled artillery was soon to arrive. Morgan wanted to
intercept this train, but unfortunately he missed the opportunity.
At 3:00 P.M., Morgan sent forward the remainder of his force to Nolin, under the command of Colonel Duke,
holding in reserve Johnson’s regiment and the other section of Palmer’s battery. Due to the prolonged
firing at Bacon Creek, Morgan was fearful that the stockade had been re-enforced from Munfordville and he
moved down to Bacon Creek to assist Colonel Hutcheson. Upon his arrival, Morgan sent in a flag of truce,
and demanded an unconditional surrender of that place, which after some hesitation on the part of Captain
James, commanding officer, finally agreed to surrender. Morgan captured ninety-three prisoners of the 91st
Illinois, including four commissioned officers. Morgan burned the stockade and trestle and Morgan moved on
to Nolin. The force at the trestle near Nolin, numbering three officers and seventy-three privates of the
91st Illinois surrendered to Colonel Duke. Colonel Duke burned the stockade and bridge. While waiting at
Upton, Morgan built large fires to be built along the track for some three miles, in order to warp and
destroy the rails.
On December 27, Morgan learned that seven or eight companies of Yankees were stationed at Elizabethtown and
moved his command in that direction. On arriving within sight of the town, Morgan received a message
written on the back of an envelope, by H. S. Smith, the commander of the Union forces in Elizabethtown,
Kentucky. Smith demanded the unconditional surrender of Morgan and his forces and informed him he was
surrounded. Morgan wrote Smith back and told him that he was surrounded, and demanded that Smith should
surrender. Smith replied that as an officer in the Union army, his duty was to fight and not to surrender.
Leaving one regiment and a howitzer in reserve to protect the wagon trains, Morgan ordered Colonel Duke to
deploy his command to the right and Colonel Breckinridge to deploy his men to the left of the town and to
throw forward skirmishers to discover the position of the Yankees. Morgan realized that Smith’s men took
possession of several brick houses on the outskirts of town, and expected to make a street fight. Morgan
placed his artillery in position on a hill a little to the left of the road, which completely commanded the
town, and sent Captain C. C. Corbett with one mountain howitzer, to attack the town on the right. After
about one hour of vigorous shelling, the town surrendered, and 652 prisoners, including twenty-five
officers, fell into Morgan’s hands.
In his report Morgan pointed out that the rapid and accurate fire of Captain Palmer’s battery contributed a
great deal to the surrender of the Union forces. Almost every one of his shots had hit the houses occupied
by the Yankees. Morgan mentioned Captain Corbett for his gallantry. Corbett ran one of his howitzers into
town while under heavy fire from the houses. Lieutenant Colonel Stoner was also mentioned for charging the
town at the head of his men.
A silver chalice presented to Colonel W. C.
P. Breckinridge by the men of the 9th Kentucky Cavalry, C. S.
On December 28, Morgan moved his forces from Elizabethtown in the direction of Bardstown to destroy two huge
trestles on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. Each trestle was protected by strong log stockades or
blockhouses filled with Yankee infantry. Four miles from Elizabethtown, Morgan ordered Colonel Breckinridge
to turn his command to the left and to attack the lower stockade near Muldraugh’s Hill, while Morgan moved
on with Colonel Duke’s brigade to attack the upper stockade. After two or three hours of shelling both
places surrendered and at 7 o’clock that evening Morgan was pleased to find that the objective of his
expedition had been attained. The Louisville and Nashville railroad would be impassable for at least two
months. These two trestles were the largest and finest on the whole road, each of them some sixty feet in
height and from three hundred to three hundred and fifty yards in length. Neither of them had ever been
destroyed before. Seven hundred prisoners, including twenty-seven officers were captured and a large and
valuable amount of medical, quartermaster and commissary stores were destroyed. Morgan encamped at the
Rolling Fork River that night.
On December 29, Morgan sent Colonel R. S. Cluke’s regiment, and one piece of artillery to attack and burn
the bridge over the Rolling Fork; Colonel Chenault’s regiment and one piece of artillery were to burn the
stockade and trestle at Boston and three companies from Colonel Breckinridge’s regiment and one mountain
howitzer were to attack at New Haven. Morgan then set his command in motion and as the rear regiments began
to cross the Rolling Fork, a large Union force consisting of cavalry, infantry, and several pieces of
artillery, which followed Morgan from Elizabethtown, came up and began to shell the ford where Morgan’s men
began to cross the ford. Morgan sent orders to Colonel Duke, who was in the rear, to send a courier to
Colonel Cluke, ordering him to rejoin the command as quickly as possible and to hold the Yankees in check
until the entire command crossed the ford. Colonel Duke, assisted by Colonel W. C. P. Breckinridge, placed
seven companies from different regiments in position and held five in reserve. With this force he repulsed
the Yankees advance several times and very nearly succeeded in capturing two pieces of artillery, but Duke,
wounded by a shell, fell from his horse. Colonel Breckinridge then took command and maintained the position
until Colonel Cluke’s regiment had crossed the river. Morgan ordered Breckinridge to fall
back. Breckinridge fell back in good order and without any further losses.
Meanwhile, Colonel Chenault had burned the trestle and stockade at Boston. He rejoined Morgan that night at
Bardstown. The force sent to burn the stockade at New Haven was not successful, and did not rejoin the
command until the following night at Springfield.
On December 30, Morgan left Bardstown, and marched to Springfield, a distance of some eighteen miles, where
he arrived at nightfall. On Morgan’s arrival he learned that the Yankees had withdrawn all their forces
from the southern portion of the State, and concentrated them at Lebanon. The Union command gathered troops
from Danville, Burkesville, Campbellsville, and Columbia and numbered nearly eight thousand men and several
pieces of artillery. Morgan also learned that a force of ten thousand moved from Glasgow to Burkesville to
intercept him. Morgan decided to detour to the right of Lebanon and by a night march, to conceal his
movements from the Yankees, out run the column moving from Glasgow to Burkesville and cross the Cumberland
before the Union force came to within striking distance. Upon arriving in Springfield he sent out two
companies on the Lebanon road, with instructions to drive the Union pickets and to hold the position. After
holding his position on the Lebanon Road, Morgan ordered his men to build large and extended campfires to
fool the Yankees into thinking that his entire force was in position, and that Morgan was only waiting for
daylight to attack. Considerable delay had occurred because Morgan could not find a reliable guide who
sufficiently knew the area to lead him over the route he desired, but by 11:00 p.m. the whole column was in
motion. The night was dark and stormy and the road rough, so on the morning of December 31, 1862, Morgan
found his command only eight miles from Springfield and two and a half miles from Lebanon. By 1 o’clock
that afternoon, the top of Muldraugh’s Hill was reached and Morgan could clearly see Lebanon and the Yankees
skirmishers deployed in the valley below with his telescope. Just as the rear guard of the column reached
the foot of the hills, a hand to hand fight broke out between Colonel D. J. Halisy, of the 6th Kentucky
Cavalry, commanding brigade, and two other Federal officers on the one side and Captain Alexander Tribble
and Lieutenant Eastin, of Morgan’s command, on the other, in which Colonel Halisy was killed by Lieutenant
Eastin, and his companions captured.
Morgan reached Campbellsville late in the evening and found in the city a large amount of commissary
stores. Morgan appreciated the commissary stores, since his men had eaten very little for the past two days.
On January 1, 1863, Morgan started for Columbia, where he arrived at 3 p.m. By a night march from Columbia,
Morgan reached Burkesville at daylight the following morning. Morgan halted his command at Burkesville for
a few hours to rest and feed, and then crossed the Cumberland without incident. On January 5. Morgan and
his men reached Smithville, Tennessee.
During Morgan’s “Christmas Raid”, he managed to destroy the Louisville and Nashville Railroad from
Munfordville to Shepherdsville within eighteen miles of Louisville, and rendered the railroad impassable for
two months. He captured 1,877 prisoners and destroyed over $2,000,000 dollars worth of Government
property. Morgan lost only two killed, twenty-four wounded, and sixty-four missing.
On January 10, 1863, Morgan and his command arrived in Alexandria, Tennessee. Later the command moved to
Liberty, Tennessee. During the winter and spring of 1863, the 9th Kentucky Cavalry acted as pickets,
scouting and guarding the right of Bragg’s army while the army held the line at Tullahoma, Tennessee. On
March 19, 1863, Morgan reported to Basil Duke that he had found Colonel Breckinridge drawn up in line of
battle near Liberty. The Yankees attacked Breckinridge’s forage wagons, and masse infantry and cavalry to
their front and cavalry in their rear. By the next day, Morgan hoped to assist Breckinridge’s force and
capture the Yankees in their front. Morgan sent a message to General Braxton Bragg or General Joseph
Wheeler that the Yankees were not going to fall back, and massed to the right, not left, of Bragg’s
army. Bragg informed Morgan that the Union soldiers were being transported from Louisville to meet Morgan’s
command, who were reported to be crossing the Cumberland at Gainsboro. Bragg had been deceived, and the
Union forces had concentrated to his right, not his left. When Bragg moved to his right he found two corps
of Union infantry and was forced to fall back to Tullahoma. The Tullohoma campaign was a failure for Bragg,
and a victory for Union General William S. Rosecrans, who was able to keep Bragg pinned down in Tennessee.
During June 1863, the 9th Kentucky Cavalry was separated from General Morgan, and did not participate in
Morgan’s Great Raid. The 9th Kentucky retreated to Chattanooga with the Army of Tennessee, passing through
McMinnville and Sequatchie Valley. Union forced drove Colonel Breckinridge’s force back to
Readyville. General Hazen led the Union force at Readyville, which consisted of 1,600 men, including one
battalion of cavalry and four regiments of infantry.
From Chattanooga, the 9th Kentucky Regiment was sent to guard the Tennessee River at Decatur, Guntersville,
and Tuscumbia, Alabama, guarding these positions until just before the battle of Chickamauga. The regiment
did not play a part in the battle of Chickamauga, arriving there a few days after the battle.
Col. W. C. P. Breckinridge?s pocket watch,
given to him by Madeline Pollard
The 9th Kentucky served at Lookout Mountain and at Harrison’s Landing, Tennessee until the Battle of
Missionary Ridge. The 9th Kentucky took part in this battle, covering the retreat of the army to Dalton,
fighting at Ringgold Gap, and moving to Tunnel Hill, Georgia. The 9th Kentucky spent the winter at Tunnel
Hill, picketing and scouting in front of the Army of Tennessee, and encamped at Dalton, Georgia.
Just before the Battle of Missionary Ridge the 9th Kentucky Regiment was brigaded with the 1st and 2nd
Kentucky Cavalry and Dortch’s Battalion. This brigade was known as Grigsby’s Cavalry Brigade, later as
William’s, and later still as Breckinridge’s. The Confederate War Department assigned the brigade to
General Joseph Wheeler’s cavalry corps, and served under him until the close of the war. On May 7, 1864,
when Sherman began his Atlanta Campaign, the 9th Kentucky Regiment was on duty at Tunnel Hill. On May 8,
the brigade fought and helped defeat General Geary’s Division of Hooker’s Corps at Dug Gap. On May 9, the
regiment was engaged at Snake Creek Gap, after Resaca, then to Cassville, Cartersville, Altoona, Marietta,
Roseville Factory, Peach Tree Creek, and finally the Battle of Atlanta. The 9th Kentucky Regiment was with
the troops that captured General Stoneman. Later at Jug Tavern, the regiment, along with Colonel
Breckinridge, defeated and captured part of Stoneman’s force as they made an effort to escape. About May
10, 1864, the 9th Kentucky crossed the Chattahoochie River, marching North with General Joseph Wheeler to
destroy Sherman’s railroad communications. The regiment marched to Dalton, then to Cleveland, Tennessee, to
Maryville, Knoxville, and over the mountains and up the Tennessee Railroad to Bristol, Tennessee, then to
Abington, and Saltville, Virginia. The regiment fought in the battle of Saltville, defeating General
Stephen Burbridge. From there the Regiment went through East Tennessee up the French Broad River to
Asheville, and then to Charlotte, North Carolina, to Greenville, South Carolina, and Athens, and West Point,
Georgia. At West Point, the Regiment met up with General Wheeler and rode back to Atlanta just in time to
confront Sherman on his March to the Sea Campaign, which began on November 16, 1864. The Regiment opposed
Sherman’s march from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia at Macon, Millidgeville, Louisville and other
points. Sherman arrived at Savannah on December 20, 1864. The 9th Kentucky Regiment opposed Sherman from
Savannah to Columbia, South Carolina. On February 17, 1865, the regiment fought Sherman at Columbia. From
Columbia to Winnsboro, then to Cheraw, and across the Great Pedee River to Fayettsville, North Carolina,
then to the Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina on March 18, 1865. On April 11, 1865, the Regiment moved
on to Raleigh, North Carolina. While in Raleigh, the 9th Kentucky Regiment heard of Confederate General
Robert E. Lee’s surrender. Attached to Dibrell’s Division of cavalry, General Wheeler ordered the Kentucky
Brigade to proceed to Greensboro, North Carolina as an escort for President Jefferson Davis and his Cabinet,
who had reached that point during their flight from Richmond, Virginia. On April 18, 1865, the 9th
Kentucky Regiment escorted Mr. Davis and his cabinet to Charlotte, North Carolina. At Charlotte the 9th
Kentucky halted a few days pending negotiations between Confederate General Joseph Johnston and Union
General William T. Sherman. During this time, General Duke’s Brigade of General Morgan’s old Division
joined the 9th Kentucky. On May 8, 1865, the 9th Regiment left Charlotte, and marched to Petersburg, South
Carolina, on the Savannah River. At Abbeville, South Carolina, the last Confederate council of war was held
and at the meeting were President Jefferson Davis, General John C. Breckinridge, General Braxton Bragg, and
five Brigade Commanders; Generals Dibrell, Furguson, Vaughn, Basil Duke, and Colonel W. C. P. Breckinridge
of the 9th Kentucky Cavalry, who was then commanding the Kentucky Cavalry Brigade. At this council, the
members decided that the struggle was hopeless and that any effort to reach the Trans-Mississippi Department
would only fail. Mr. Davis cast the only dissenting vote, but finally accepted the resolution. On May 10,
1865, the 9th Regiment marched to Washington, Georgia and surrendered to Union forces.
“On April 1, 1884, Pollard filed another petition that stated that at the age of
seventeen, she had been seduced by Breckinridge, who at the time was married and forty-seven years old and
that he later “completed his seduction” of her
After the war, W. C. P. Breckinridge entered the political arena as had his father and grandfather, and his
famous cousin, John C. Breckinridge. To further his political career he would marry a granddaughter of
Henry Clay, the Great Compromiser, and following her death he married a granddaughter of a former Kentucky
governor. Breckinridge settled down to family life and was the father of five children. W. C. P.
Breckinridge practiced his oratory skills and after a while he became known for his great speeches. The
newspapers nicknamed him “the silver tongued orator from Kentucky.” People came from all around to listen
to Breckinridge speak on such diverse topics as religion, imperialism, race relations, politics, and
morals. To keep his image as a moral person, Breckinridge would not drink, smoke, play cards, or
bet. Papers reported Breckinridge as a medium sized man with dark gray eyes and a mellow voice, which was
clear, melodious and resonant.
Breckinridge served five terms as a member of the House of Representatives. Rumors around Washington named
Breckinridge as possibly the next speaker of the House, Vice President, or even President.
Life was good for Breckinridge. He had served the Confederacy with distinction, had a good home, and was
successful in politics, but an incident occurred in 1893 that would forever change Breckinridge’s life. A
woman named Madeline Pollard petitioned the court that she be given $50,000 dollars because W. C. P.
Breckinridge had promised to marry her but did not.
On April 1, 1884, Pollard filed another petition that stated that at the age of seventeen, she had been
seduced by Breckinridge, who at the time was married and forty-seven years old and that he later “completed
his seduction” of her. She claimed that since that time she not only been his mistress, but that she had
also given birth to two of his children.
In 1893, after Breckinridge’s wife had died, Pollard received a promise of marriage from him, but he ended
up marrying another woman. Madeline Pollard sued for a breach of contract because there was no seduction
law in the District of Columbia. Breckinridge decided to contest the lawsuit, which would be his
downfall. The case was tried and the jury found Breckinridge guilty and ordered him to pay $15,000
dollars. The conviction damaged W. C. P. Brecinridge’s political career. His name had been dragged through
the mud by Pollard, and the newspapers could not get enough of the moral scandal.
Even with this blot on his political career, Breckinridge opted to run for Congress. In a very tight race
Breckinridge lost by only 255 votes out of 19,000 ballots cast. His election drew the attention of the
national press, which brought up the scandal and the scandal literally divided families, churches, and
neighborhoods. The election brought the moral standards of the society to question and they were discussed
in every circle.
Breckinridge would never return to politics, after losing the election. Instead he and his son bought the
Lexington Morning Herald newspaper. His son, Desha, would serve as the editor of the Lexington Herald for
Breckinridge would take pride in watching his children in his later years. His son, Desha as editor, and
one of his daughters, Sophonisba, became the first woman in the U.S. to receive a Ph. D. degree, and was one
of the first women to be admitted to the Kentucky bar. She was highly acclaimed as an educator and
administrator at the University of Chicago.
On November 17, 1904, Breckinridge fell ill and developed a fever, his lungs filled with fluid, and
breathing became difficult. Despite the doctors' best efforts William slipped into a coma. On November 19,
1904, at the age of sixty-seven, “peacefully like the sinking of the summer sun leaving behind a pathway
which no painter’s brush can limn, the life spark of Col. W. C. P. Breckinridge went out at the tolling of
the midnight bells…He died at 11:40 o’clock surrounded by his family…The end came softly as a child
would fall asleep within it’s mother’s arms.” W. C. P. Breckinridge’s life was filled with highs and
lows. The Pollard case had caused Breckinridge to be less than admired by some, but to others, especially
the old veterans who served under him in the 9th Kentucky Cavalry, he was still admired and revered for his
courage, bravery, and devotion. Many people in the community still thought of Breckinridge as a great
man. His political career was filled with accolades. He was a Bourbon Democrat. The Bourbon Democrats
were ex-Confederates who controlled Kentucky politics after the war and until the turn of the century. He
also served five terms in the U.S. House of Representatives. His children would follow in the footsteps of
their father and continue to bring honor to the Breckinridge name. If one thing could be said about W. C.
P. Breckinridge, he led a unique and interesting life and lived his life to the fullest.■
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